Is the bark of moringa root toxic?

Dear friends , according to Dr George Crosby in the following article the bark of the moringa root is toxic.Any idea on the effects of bark on human being? 

"I also presented information on my research with Moringa oleifera, a multipurpose tree having promising potential for its nutritional benefits. Reaching a height of 7 to 12 meters, moringa is considered a "vegetable tree" because almost every part of the plant has food value. Moringa is known commonly as drumstick tree (for the seed pods), ben oil tree (for the seed oil) and horseradish tree (for the flavor of the roots). Roots are used as a substitute for horseradish, although the bark must be removed from the roots before they are used because it is toxic. The leaves are eaten as greens, used as an ingredient in vegetable curries, as well as a seasoning in other dishes. Ounce for ounce, moringa leaves contain more beta-carotene than carrots, more iron than spinach, more potassium than bananas, more vitamin C than oranges, and more protein than peas. Moringa leaf powder has been identified as a dietary supplement in developing regions of the world, where leaves are dried and crushed to make a powder that can be added to other food.» by George Crosby, Ph.D


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Dear Friends ,

I thanks you very much for your contributions through my email , and I feel very happy to share the scientific information on the root bark toxicity with you all. Kindly let us know what was your personel experience.

"Hormonal action may be mediated through the estrogen or progesterone receptor as well. Moringa oleifera inhibits maintenance and growth of reproductive organs. In fact, in rural and tribal areas of the West Bengal province in India, the root of this plant is taken by women, especially prostitutes, as permanent contraception, and it has been shown to totally inactivate or suppress the reproductive system."

"Different parts of the plant have different pharmacological actions and toxicity profiles, which have not yet been completely defined. However, several toxicities have been described and are worth mentioning.
The root bark contains 2 alkaloids as well as the toxic hypotensive moringinine. At lower concentrations, it produces a dose-dependent positive inotropic effect, and at higher concentrations, a dose-dependent negative inotropic effect, as was demonstrated in a study using an isolated frog heart. Niazinin A, niazimicin, and niaziminin A+B resulted from bioassay-directed fractionation of the ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. Intravenous administration (1-10 mg/kg) produced hypotensive and bradycardiac effects in anesthetized rats and negative inotropic and chronotropic effects in isolated guinea pig atria. The direct depressant action of these compounds exhibited on all of the isolated preparations tested is thought to be responsible for its hypotensive and bradycardiac effects observed in vivo.
The bark of the tree may cause violent uterine contractions that can be fatal. Methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera root was found to contain 0.2% alkaloids. Effects of multiple weekly doses (35, 46, 70 mg/kg) and daily therapeutic (3.5, 4.6, and 7.0 mg/kg) intraperitoneal doses of the crude extract on liver and kidney function and hematologic parameters in mice have been studied. The results indicate that weekly moderate and high doses (> 46 mg/kg body weight) and daily/therapeutic high doses (7 mg/kg) of crude extract affect liver and kidney function and hematologic parameters, whereas a weekly dose (3.5 mg/kg) and low and moderate daily/therapeutic doses (3.5 and 4.6 mg/kg) did not produce adverse effects on liver and kidney function.[23] LD50 and lowest published toxic dose (TDLo) of root bark extract Moringa oleifera Lam. are 500 mg/kg and 184 mg/kg, respectively, when used intraperitoneally in rodents (mice). Changes in clotting factor, changes in serum composition (eg, total protein, bilirubin, cholesterol), along with enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels of other transferases have been noted.
However, the interior flesh of the plant can also be dangerous if consumed too frequently or in large amounts. Even though the toxic root bark is removed, the flesh has been found to contain the alkaloid spirochin, which can cause nerve paralysis."



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